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STDs on the Rise...Again

STDs on the Rise...Again

On August 28, 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced the sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection rates for 2017. Nearly 2.3 million reported cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis were diagnosed in the U.S., surpassing 2016 by 200,000 cases. This marks the fourth consecutive year of increases in these STDs.

 2013 to 2017:

Gonorrhea: 67% increase (2017: 555,608 total cases)

Syphilis: 76% increase (2017: 30,644 total cases)

Chlamydia: Most common STD with 1.7 million cases reported in 2017. 45% of these were among females 15 to 24 years old

 Gonorrhea and Chlamydia:

·         Bacterial infections that infect the reproductive tract (cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes in women; urethra in women and men) and the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, eyes, and rectum

·         Ejaculation does not have to occur for them to be transmitted, as they can be found in pre-ejaculation (pre-cum) fluid

·         Can be spread from mother to baby during childbirth

·         Diagnosis: lab test obtained by swab (from the body part) or from urine sample

·         Treatment: antibiotic therapy

Symptoms:

Men:

·         None

·         Burning with urination

·         White, yellow, or green discharge from the urethra

·         Testicle pain

Women

·         None

·         Burning with urination

·         Increased vaginal discharge

·         Bleeding between periods

·         Pelvic pain

Rectal

·         None

·         Discharge or bleeding

·         Anal itching or soreness

·         Painful bowel movements

Head

·         Throat infection may cause a sore throat, but usually there are no symptoms

·         Eye infections

Complications:

·         In untreated women, the infection can spread to the uterus and fallopian tubes, causing Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). This serious illness can lead to chronic pain, ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy in the fallopian tubes), and infertility

·         In men, gonorrhea rarely causes infertility

·         If left untreated, gonorrhea can spread to the blood and cause a life-threatening condition called Disseminated Gonococcal Infection

 Syphilis

·         Bacterial infection that is transmitted from person to person by direct (genital-to-genital) contact with a syphilitic sore, known as a chancre

·         Because of this, condoms may not protect against syphilis

·         Chancres can occur on or around the external genitals, (including in the vagina, around the anus, or in the rectum; in or around the mouth)

·         Pregnant women can transmit the infection to their unborn child

·         Diagnosis: blood test

·         Treatment: antibiotic therapy

Symptoms:

Primary stage:

·         Appearance of a single chancre (or multiple) that is usually firm, round, and painless

·         Appears at the location where syphilis entered the body (may not always be visible)

·         Heals regardless of whether treated or not

·         If left untreated, it progresses to the second stage

Secondary Stage:

·         Characterized by skin rashes and/or mucous membrane lesions (sores in the mouth, vagina, or anus)

·         Appear when the primary chancre is healing or several weeks after the chancre has healed

·         Goes away with or without treatment

·         If left untreated, the disease progresses

Latent Stage:

·         No visible symptoms but infection remains in the body

·         Can last for years

Tertiary Syphilis:

·         Is rare and develops in untreated syphilis infections

·         Can appear 10–30 years after infection was first acquired and be fatal

·         Can affect multiple organ systems, including the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints

 

 

 

National Suicide Week: Sept. 9-15, 2018

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